The aim of this study is to compare outcomes and cost-effectiveness of anterior versus
posterior surgical treatment for lumbar Isthmic Spondylolisthesis. The primary objective is
to compare treatment effectiveness in terms of functional outcomes as measured by Oswestry
Disability Index (ODI) v2.1a and to compare safety outcomes measured by treatment-related
adverse events. Secondary objectives are to compare treatments in terms of differences in
pain, quality of life, health utilities, and need for re-operation. Finally, a
cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed. This analysis will take the form of
cost-effectiveness if there is a difference in treatment effects or cost-minimization if
there is no difference in treatment efficacy.

Multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of
abatacept to achieve sustained glucocorticoid-free remission in patients with relapsing
non-severe granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) (GPA) . Participants will be
randomized 1:1 to receive either abatacept 125 mg or placebo administered by subcutaneous
injection once a week. Participants will continue on study treatment for a minimum of 12
months unless they experience a disease relapse or disease flare.

Participants who experience a non-severe disease relapse, non-severe disease worsening, or
who have not achieved remission by month 6 will have the option of entering an open-label
trial period whereby they would receive open-label abatacept.

The purpose of this study is to determine if intrathecal hydromorphone will relieve pain as
well as intrathecal morphine after cesarean delivery, with fewer side effects.

The STREAM Study is a prospective longitudinal observational outcomes study that will
examine the reliability, validity and responsiveness of the PROMIS tools for clinical
research following orthopaedic trauma.

Based upon the current state of science, the investigators are proposing to conduct a
randomized clinical trial in which participants are randomized post-surgery to either BIS or
circumferential (tape) measurements for follow-up arm measurements. When patients in the BIS
group have an L-Dex change that is ≥10 units higher than the pre-surgical baseline measure,
and when patients in the tape measurement group have a volume change in the at-risk arm that
is between ≥ 5% and arm), both will receive four weeks of 23-32 mm compression sleeve and gauntlet therapy.

Purpose: The objective of this study is to evaluate the safety of long-term treatment with Kuvan.

Interventions:
1. PKUDOS Registry
Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of Phenylketonuria (PKU) with hyperphenylalaninemia who have either received Kuvan therapy, or currently receive Kuvan therapy, or intend to begin receiving Kuvan therapy within 90 days of entering the registry.

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